Time Travel Research Center © 1998 Cetin BAL - GSM:+90  05366063183 -Turkey / Denizli 

Time travel theory

Throughout history, physicists have been discussing the plausibility of time travel. The theory of relativity allows for time travel into the future, going at high speeds returning to earth only aging slightly compared to your peers. Einstein's theory is a theory of space and time, it should be no surprise that black holes offer, in concept, a way to travel through space and time as well. Since it is possible in concept only, it does not mean that it has been achieved as of yet. Black holes are the product of a collapse of a massive star that has such an extreme gravitational force that it keeps light particles from leaving its surface, making the star practically invisible. Black holes act like a one way street, only allowing objects to fall into the black hole but nothing can escape from its gravitational pull. In the 1960's a mathematician from New Zealand, Roy Kerr said, that if a black hole is rotating a singularity forms in the shape of a ring. In principle, it would be possible to dive into such a space and through the ring, to emerge in another place and time. The "Kerr Solution" was the first mathematical example of a time machine. Nobody took Kerr's idea seriously until the 1970's when astronomers discovered what seemed to be real black holes in our galaxy and the hearts of other galaxies. There is an interior tunnel in the exact Kerr solution of the Einstein Field of Equations, but it is unstable. The slightest disturbance inside would seal it off and turn the tunnel into a physical singularity which would allow nothing to pass through it.

White holes are practically just like black holes in the way they are formed. The difference is that, in white holes, objects are pushed away from the center, unlike black holes which engulf objects not allowing them to escape their gravitational force. Therefore, black holes and white holes must be connected in some way, theorists believe they are connected by worm holes. If this is true, the way that this system would work is that the object would be pulled in through the black hole and shot through the wormhole at a speed close to that of light and then at the end the object would be pushed out through the white hole in another area in space. Antigravity is a force that is opposite to gravity, instead of attracting all objects, it repels them. This works kind of like when two protons come in contact with each other. Wormholes are theoretical objects in space. Wormholes are tunnels that connect two areas of space. Theoretically, black holes and white holes are connected by wormholes. Therefore, the black holes suck objects in and then are spewed out of white holes in another area in space. The tunnels that connect the two holes are called wormholes.

The traveling through the wormhole will cause you to emerge into another universe. The problem with emerging in this new world is finding a way to get home. The only way to get back to where you came from is by finding another black hole that will cause you to emerge in an area in the place which you left from. Otherwise there will be difficulty in returning to your home.

What is needed for time travel is an object that is massive enough to create distortion of space-time. Today's great physicist Stephen Hawking has already discredited the possibility of creating time machines. Although Stephen Hawking is a great physicist, his thoughts of time travel being impossible have been discredited by an Israeli researcher, Amos Ori. Ori found a flaw in the argument put forward by Hawking, claiming to rule out any possibility of time travel.

Physicists look more deeply into general relativity for details concerning time travel. In these areas of astrophysics and cosmology, the existence of black holes and wormholes is the only place to look for a mathematical or any type of equation to the existence of these celestial bodies. Cosmology is the study of large scale structures, the composition and evolution of the universe. Astrophysics is an older type of astronomy that uses the theory of relativity, along with other attributes to help explain certain occurrences in the universe.

The main purpose of Einstein's theory of special relativity was to establish the similarities of the reproduction of light and the validity of the physical laws in all frames. Galileo felt that time was constant at all times throughout the universe and Lorentz felt that when an object is moving it makes time move at a slower rate than that of the stationary clock.

Einstein proved that time can seem to travel at different speeds, the speed at which the time seems to travel all depends upon the state of motion of the observer. Einstein said that a clock in a moving laboratory would seem to tick slower than a set of clocks in a reference laboratory.

When discovering how wormholes are created, it was practically common sense. Gravity pushes matter together, creating singularities to close the wormhole. But the wormhole would be able to stay open, if a form of matter gives off a negative pressure which had antigravity associated with it. As Newton's third law of motion states, any object that comes in contact with a force an equal and opposite force will be distributed. This third law proves that if a wormhole would exist in the universe, that it would not be closed shut because of the equal and opposite force given against it. Since wormholes are the connectors of black holes and white holes, there is an equality being created at each of the two ends. The amount of force that the black hole is forcing onto the wormhole the white hole absorbs and distorts into another area in the universe. Therefore this existing system works in a complete equilibrium.

One of the problems with time travel in the past is called the "grandparent" paradox. Suppose that you are back in time and kill your grandparents before they have any children. By doing this do you eliminate your own existence? Doing something of that sort is forbidden, and in a sense you would have no free will since you are not "allowed" to kill your grandparent then. Paradoxes limit the free will of people since they are not allowed to kill their grandparent due to the laws of causality. Causality refers to the power, by which one event causes another. It has been believed that some kind of connection is necessary between the cause and the effect of events. The study of causality has centered, in part, on trying to discover and define this connection. It is easy to see how one can make a time machine if one will consider the "twin paradox" in special relativity. If there are two people, one is in a fixed position and the other is moving at a high speed relative to the person at the fixed position. Each of the people have a watch in their hands, the person moving at a high velocity's clock will seem to be moving relatively slower compared to the person just standing there. This occurs because of the time dilation in special relativity.

We are all time travelers in one sense, or another, simply by the process of aging. We are all moving towards our future, according to decisions we make in the present and made in the past. As for today's world time travels might be allowed theoretically, but real ones are still science fiction.

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Title: Time travel theory

Description:This time travel theory article discusses several theories of time travel, and comes to a conclusion if it is possible.

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Ultimate gadget: time machines are here now?

Particle collider could create black holes and wormholes

February 11th - By J. Mark Lytle

Adventurous travellers might want to mark this May in their diaries as the dawn of the age of time travel - at least that's what a team of Russian scientists are suggesting could happen.

The trigger that might just herald the arrival of the first time travellers and, thus, the first usable time machines will be the inauguration of a research facility in Switzerland dedicated to smashing and understanding the building blocks of matter.

Near light speed

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), run by CERN, will deliberately collide sub-atomic particles that are traveling around a 27km loop at close to the speed of light. The goals of the scientists working on the project include filling many gaps in our understanding of physics, but there are suggestions that the LHC could create miniature black holes and wormholes in space-time.

Russian mathematicians Irina Aref'eva and Igor Volovich from Steklov Mathematical Institute in Moscow suggest that there's an outside possibility that such wormholes could be the key to a future civilisation understanding time travel. Naturally, once their time machines were built, travelling back to when it all started would have obvious appeal to them.

Grandfather clause?

The fact that we've never seen time travellers yet simply underlines that moving back through time would be possible only as far back as the creation of the first time machine - and that could be the LHC.

Whether or not our worldview is about to be turned upside-down in a few weeks is anybody's guess, but the scientists are saying that we should at least be ready for the possibility of meeting our great, great grandchildren a little early.

It has been one of the most captivating and wonderful fantasies of quantum physics. Since H.G Wells, it has almost been the topic of discussion even among the common men who walk the street and have no clue about what modern day physics is all about. It has been a fantasy of the common man and minds like Einstein and Stephen Hawking alike. ‘Time Travel’ is probably the most over done concept of theoretical physics on both the big screen and television. Now a couple of scientists from CERN are saying that the fantasy machine is soon going to be ready, be it by accident. Or are they? CERN - What is the first thing that comes to mind when I mention it? Not able to guess? I’ll give you a bit more of a clue. CERN, Geneva, Particle Accelerators, collision of particles and Large Hadron Collider; Now maybe? I don’t know about you, but the first time I heard about this, I did honestly think that it was a rip-off from Dan Brown’s Angels and Demons. But apparently it is not.

Two Russian mathematicians, Irina Aref’eva and Igor Volovich, have suggested that the giant atom-smasher being built at the European centre for nuclear research, CERN, near Geneva, could create the conditions where it might be possible to travel backwards or forwards in time. The Large Hadron Collider being built at CERN is a particle accelerator that allows us to understand the properties and behavior of the most basic sub-nuclear particles that are the building blocks of the universe. It is ironic to think about it, but these unimaginably small particles will shed some light and help us understand the nature of the unfathomably vast universe that we are a microscopic part of.

The particle accelerator is supposed to create worm holes that allow time travel. Obviously, till today the existence of worm holes and parallel universes has been limited to just theory and some speculation. Now Einstein’s theory will be put to the ultimate test in the grandest fashion on the smallest stage in the universe. If the fact that space and time do bend with mass is true to the care, then the LHC at CERN will at least produce worm holes for a fraction of a second with the size of sub-nuclear particles. It is these worm holes that would enable us to travel through time.

So is the time machine now going to be all set and ready? Well, not quite. For starters, the worm holes are not going to be large enough for an atom to fit through them, let alone a human being. Moreover, that minute fraction of time for which they would be active is too small to really make a study on. Also, there is this limiting factor that one cannot travel back in time beyond the point when the first time machine was created. To put that in a simple language, one cannot travel back beyond the time when the first worm hole was actually opened for us to travel through. So chances are that we will not have any future travelers just yet. It might take a long, long time to still build that first magic worm hole, but this is a start. Despite it being on a tiny scale, the spectrum of possibilities that lie ahead is amazingly exciting. This time though, I hope it has no ‘Strings’ attached, if you get what I mean!

The Big Question: Is time travel possible, and is there any chance that it will ever take place?

By Steve Connor, Science Editor
Friday, 8 February 2008

Why are we asking this now?

Two Russian mathematicians have suggested that the giant atom-smasher being built at the European centre for nuclear research, Cern, near Geneva, could create the conditions where it might be possible to travel backwards or forwards in time. In essence, Irina Aref'eva and Igor Volovich believe that the Large Hadron Collider at Cern, which is due to be switched on this year for the first time, might create tiny "wormholes" in space which could allow some form of limited time travel.

If true, this would mark the first time in human history that a time machine has been created. If travelling back in time is possible at all, it should in theory be only possible to travel back to the point when the first time machine was created and so this would mean that time travellers from the future would be able to visit us. As an article in this week's New Scientist suggests, this year – 2008 – could become "year zero" for time travel.

Is this really a serious proposition?

The New Scientist article points out that there are many practical problems and theoretical paradoxes to time travel. "Nevertheless, the slim possibility remains that we will see visitors from the future in the next year," says the magazine says, rather provocatively.

It has to be said that few scientists accept the idea that the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will create the conditions thought to be necessary for time travel. The LHC is designed to probe the mysterious forces that exist at the level of sub-atomic particles, and as such will answer many important questions, such as the true nature of gravity. It is not designed as a time machine.

In any case, if the LHC became a time machine by accident, the device would exist only at the sub-atomic level so we are not talking about a machine like Dr Who's Tardis, which is able to carry people forwards and backwards from the future.

What do the experts say about the idea of time travel?

The theoretical possibility is widely debated, but everyone agrees that the practical problems are so immense that it is, in all likelihood, never going to happen. Brian Cox, a Cern researcher at the University of Manchester, points out that even if the laws of physics do not prohibit time travel, that doesn't mean to say it's going to happen, certainly in terms of travelling back in time.

"Saying that the laws of physics as we know them permit travel into the past is the same as saying that, to paraphrase Bertrand Russell, they permit a teapot to be in orbit around Venus," Dr Cox says. It's possible, but not likely.

"Time travel into the future is absolutely possible, in fact time passes at a different rate in orbit than it does on the ground, and this has to be taken into consideration in order for satellite navigation systems to work. But time travel into the past, although technically allowed in Einstein's theory, will in the opinion of most physicists be ruled out when, and if, we develop a better understanding of the fundamental laws of physics – and that's what the LHC is all about."

Why is the possibility of time travel even considered?

It comes down to the general theory of relativity devised by Albert Einstein in 1905. It is the best theory we have so far on the nature of space and time and it was Einstein who first formulated the mathematical equations that related both time and space in the form of an entity called "space-time". Those equations and the theory itself do not prohibit the idea of time travel, although there have been many attempts since Einstein to prove that travelling back in time is impossible.

Is there anything to support the theory?

Lots of science fiction writers have had fun with time travel, going back to H.G. Wells, whose book The Time Machine was published in 1895 – 10 years before Einstein's general theory of relativity. Interestingly, it was another attempt at science fiction that revived the modern interest in time travel.

When Carl Sagan, the American astronomer, was writing his 1986 novel Contact, he wanted a semi-plausible way of getting round the problem of not being able to travel faster than the speed of light – which would break a fundamental rule of physics. He needed his characters to travel through vast distances in space, so he asked his cosmologist friend Kip Thorne to come up with a possible way of doing it without travelling faster than light.

Thorne suggested that by manipulating black holes it might be possible to create a "wormhole" through space-time that would allow someone to travel from one part of the Universe to another in an instant. He later realised that this could also in theory be used to travel back in time. It was just a theory of course, and no one has come close to solving the practical problem of manipulating black holes and creating wormholes, but the idea seemed to be sound. It spawned a lot of subsequent interest in wormholes and time travel, hence the latest idea by the two Russian mathematicians.

Apart from the practicalities, what's to stop time travel?

The biggest theoretical problem is known as the time-travel paradox. If someone travels back in time and does something to prevent their own existence, then how can time travel be possible? The classic example is the time traveller who kills his grandfather before his own father is conceived.

Cosmologists, renowned for their imaginative ingenuity, have come up with a way round this paradox. They have suggested that there is not one universe but many – so many that every possible outcome of any event actually takes place. In this multiple universe, or "multiverse" model, a woman who goes back in time to murder her own granny can get way with it because in the universe next door the granny lives to have the daughter who becomes the murderer's mother.

Where does this leave the time machine in Geneva?

The science writer and physicist John Gribbin, who explains these things better than most, points to a saying in physics: anything that is not forbidden is compulsory. "So they expect time machines to exist. The snag is that the kind of accidental 'time tunnel' that could be produced by the LHC in Geneva would be a tiny wormhole far smaller than an atom, so nothing would be able to go through it. So there won't be any visitors from the future turning up in Geneva just yet. I'd take it all with a pinch of salt, but it certainly isn't completely crazy."

So, not completely crazy, just a bit crazy.

So will we one day be able to travel into the future?

Yes...

* There is nothing in the laws of physics to prohibit it, and events in Geneva are pointing the way and could be a first step

* In physics, so the saying goes, if nothing is prohibited, it must happen at some point

* All we need to do is to work out how to manipulate black holes and wormholes, and away we go

No...

* The practical problems with time travel are too immense to solve, and even if you could, who would want to?

* You might travel back in time and kill one of your grandparents by accident. Then where would you be?

* If time travel is possible, why are we still waiting to welcome our first visitors from the future?

 

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