Time Travel Research Center © 1998 Cetin BAL - GSM:+90  05366063183 - Turkey / Denizli 

Wormholes

The most interesting theories about time travelling have something to do with wormholes. I'll explain it to you by using a simple example. Imagine the world of a 2-dimensional sort of worms. They live at the surface of a huge apple they call the 'appleworld'. Because they have 2 dimensions theirselves, they assume their world to be 2-dimensional too. They can't imagine 3 dimensions. Now there's one weird worm, Oswald, that's got very weird ideas. All the others laugh when they see Oswald, 'cause he pretends that their world is bended into another 3th dimension that no one can feel. Oswald wants to prove he's right and begins his journey. After a long time, he arrives at the same place he started from. This proves the existing of the bended 3th dimension. But Oswald doesn't stop by this idea, he says there's a shorter way than following the 2-dimensonal tour and he eats a hole through the apple. These routes are the so called 'wormholes'.

                                                             
  We can be compared to that worms. We know 3 dimensions and a 4th temporal dimension. So we could travel through the 4th dimension using a shorter way.
  Because we can't imagine 4 dimensions, we drop one and we use a piece of bended paper. The 2 dimensions of the paper present the 3 dimensions we know, and it is bended into the 3th dimension (representing the 4th dimension). The tunnel shows a shorter way through the wormhole. It's not that easy to travel through a wormhole, because big wormholes don't just arise out of nothing. They're the result of an enormous gravity, and that's the result of a huge concentration of energy, for example a black hole. In the early 1930's, Albert Einstein and Nathan Rosen discovered that the gravity hole, in which the middle of the black hole lies should be bottomless, and that it should lead to another, hypothetical universe or another part of this time-universe. Such a hole is called an Einstein-Rosen bridge or a wormhole. However, some problems rise when we think of using such a wormhole. In the middle of a black hole gravity is that big that it would tear apart every space ship. Wormholes could be very unstable; the presence of a space ship could be enough to make the wormhole collapse. You also need to go faster than light if you want to reach the other side, 'cause the speed you need to escape a black hole is bigger than light speed. And as a last problem, time passes slower in a wormhole and stands still right in the middle of it. It would take infinite time to travel through the wormhole. So it seems the wormhole isn't made for travelling through time...unless Carl Sagan appears.


In 1985 Carl Sagan sent a manuscript of his book (about alien civilization) to Kip Thorne and Michael Morris, scientists at the California Institute of Technology. He also put a letter with it in which he asked if they knew a way to travel along huge distances faster than light without breaking the light barrier. Thorne was very interested and started to find a way. They wanted to prepare a fast journey for an astronaut, without him getting torn apart or destroyed by a collapsing wormhole. They didn't think about the energy that could be necessary or if the technical knowledge was existing. They just thought about the theoretical possibility. They reached a solution very soon: the wormhole could even be used for time travelling. It would be as comfortable as flying with an aeroplane, the wormhole can't collapse, a journey would take 200 days, maybe less. The only problem was that building such a wormhole isn't possible yet with the science and techniques of today. But there are two ways....


One way is making the wormhole out of almost nothing. If we would observe a small part of the universe, we could see that space looks a lot like a turbulent ocean. That's because of the fluctuations of gravity, that make the space-bending vary. At a level of 10-35 m (or 1020 times smaller than the nucleus of an atom) those fluctuations make arise small, short-living wormholes. Some scientists believe it could be possible to enlarge such wormholes.


Another way uses magnetism. According to general relativity everything that's got energy can bend space, so a magnetic field can too. Claudio Maccone claims it's possible to make a wormhole out of a magnetic field. But for a wormhole with diameter 1 m we need a magnetic field of 1018 tesla, and now we can only make magnetic fields of 10 tesla.


Then some common problems arise. How to protect the wormhole from collapsing? In the middle of a wormhole we need to place a 'rare' matter, consisting out of negative energy and negative mass. Before you start laughing I want you to notice that not a single theory excludes the existence of such matter. In 1948 the Dutch scientist Henrik Casimir proved the existence of negative energy and the possibility to create and to measure it. However, the negative mass for a 1 m-wormhole would be minus 1 time the positive mass of Jupiter (about -1,90 . 1027 kg)!


 In spite of all these problems it is possible for a far developed civilization to create such a wormhole and  travel through time. However, the technical level to do this is very high.

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