Roland Michel Tremblay
have watched almost every Sliders’ episodes up to the moment where
they changed all their characters. It was not the same after that and
I could not follow it anymore. Unfortunately I did not record the
first ever episode where they would talk about the remote control but
I have seen it. To my knowledge, they have not explained
scientifically how the remote control works. That is what I would like
to verify by watching it again, but I don’t believe they gave us much
information. There was one other episode where the Professor tried to
explain the parallel universes and get the credit for the technology,
I recently saw that episode and I still don’t think they explained it.
Here is all I found about it on the net:
“Quinn Mallory, while working on an anti-gravity machine (device),
accidentally creates a portal to a parallel universe.”
“While researching anti-gravity, brilliant grad student Quinn Mallory
accidentally opens an inter-dimensional portal, which sends him and
three companions on a cosmic roller-coaster ride to alternate Earths.”
Anti-gravity devices to open wormholes
how would an anti-gravity device open an Einstein-Rosen Bridge (a
wormhole) to a parallel universe, your guess is as good as mine. It is
not like the Antimatter propulsion system of the Enterprise, it cannot
really produce the energy you need in order to open a wormhole. The
only thing that could happen if you could really invent an anti-gravity
device, is that magnetic fields would be distorted. Well, a lot of
strange things could happen as a consequence. Usually time runs faster
or slower, and space could be warped and distorted. Ultimately I
suppose you could warp space to an extent that a wormhole would open
and I suppose that this is how they explain it in Sliders. Or perhaps
they meant an antimatter device to justify the energy needed in order
to open the wormhole, like on the Enterprise. The annihilation of the
matter with the antimatter produces the huge amount of energy needed
to warp space.
thing though, every story about UFOs we hear these days, about their
possible way of propulsion and all the side effects of their engine,
appear to be related to high magnetic fields and antigravity devices.
People report time slowing down, time going faster, space being
distorted, ships moving in odd directions, no noise, and ships being
multiplied when moving because they would be going faster than the
speed of light. If these ships really go from one solar system to
another, whatever how they do it, they appear to be using antigravity
devices and high magnetic fields. Ultimately that could also be the
technology we need in order to open a wormhole or to warp space.
What is needed to open a wormhole
would need negative energy forces (still theoretical), exotic matter (still
theoretical), incredible amount of energy we cannot produce today, and
the wormhole itself would need to be artificially maintained. They
cannot be a natural phenomenon. Unless of course you dissociate
yourself from the wormholes of the movie Contact (Kip Thorne wormholes).
They invented the concept and this is how wormholes can exist from
their definition. You could always invent your own type of wormhole
and explain it differently. There are still a lot of mystery in this
world and many phenomena that we have not yet identified. Whenever we
discover something in science today, we are always completely
surprised by what we find. Things we thought impossible are suddenly
happening, things we could not even have imagined happen. Ultimately
you can find other ways than wormholes to reach your parallel
Using a remote control or handheld device to open a wormhole
this is Science Fiction and your audience is not gullible. They will
question everything. This does not mean you cannot use a remote
control to open a wormhole like in Sliders, but it means that you have
to justify it very well. Now, I sincerely believe that new science
will not come from those high energy power stations they have built,
but from simple ideas and simple experiments. Because it is all down
to discovering how the universe and the laws of physics work. Think of
a different way to explain everything, and a remote control is all you
will need to create a huge amount of energy, open a wormhole, distort
reality or go to a parallel universe. How you explain it is crucial
and needs to be groundbreaking. Even, just having your character
saying that most great discoveries in science are made of small things
and little equipment, will add credibility. What is difficult is how
you picture the universe, the physics that explain the world you live
in. Once you understand it, you can manipulate it quite easily.
you are still concerned, your remote control could also just be the
tip of the iceberg. It could be the mean to activate a powerful
machine somewhere else or even a powerful satellite in orbit. Then you
have a laser beam striking someone from space or an energy field of
some sort sending someone into a parallel universe.
is also the concept of Mind over Matter. You could easily have a
device over your heads and the remote control or hand device could
help focus your mind in order to create a shift into another universe
(I mean help you switch universe). In this case you could be talking
about psychological problems that parallel universes appear to be able
to explain, like multiple personality syndrome and schizophrenia (where
you would obviously see real people but in parallel universes). There
is interesting information about parallel universes on this webpage:
highly informative and technical report can be found here:
Main page of
The National Institute for Discovery
is no longer online, I have added the report to my server and you can
reach it by clicking here:
Questions and answers
What is a parallel
alternate reality, another possible outcome of our reality. There
could be many parallel universes super-imposed in our space and time.
Why is it believed
that parallel universes exist?
of the weird phenomena observed in Quantum Physics where one particle
can be at many different places at the same time. Also because many
equations and theories only make sense if parallel universes exist.
This is the case of the Many-Worlds interpretation of Quantum
appear to vanish and appear out of the nothingness of space which
suggests that they might be going and coming to and from parallel
most likely candidate to explain everything in science: the unifying
theory for the very large and the very small (TOE - theory of
everything), is Superstring theory which accounts for at least 10-11
dimensions. This also works better if a multiverse exists.
How could you go
into a parallel universe?
-Einstein-Rosen bridge (wormholes, vortex) (a lot of energy)
a rift (or a window) in the spacetime continuum (a lot of energy)
with electromagnetic fields (strong magnetic fields) distorting space
out of phase with reality (see the solution 2 of my Invisibility
over matter in order to make your body vibrate at another frequency (see
the solution 7 of my Invisibility report)
Though this report is about invisibility, you could quite easily
replace being invisible as if you were in a parallel universe. Many of
the solutions and ideas could help you to justify being in a parallel
universe (especially solution 1, 2 and 7).
Has there ever been
any occurrence of someone going into a parallel universe?
to my knowledge. But what about ghosts, people finding themselves in
different time period, people becoming invisible and déjà-vu
phenomenon? You could add schizophrenic people hearing voices and
seeing people that others cannot see.
Is there any proof
of parallel universes?
there are a lot in mathematics and physics. It seems to pop up all the
time in theory. Quantum computers are also a proof. At the moment
quantum computers are using the weird phenomena observe in the Quantum
World in order to process information, they are basically using
computers in parallel universes. At the moment they are using up to 64
computers in parallel universes and prove that parallel universes
exist. Soon it will be a huge amount of computers in parallel
universes that these quantum computers will be using to make complex
calculations in seconds instead of years. All the info at this URL:
What are the
advantages of going into a parallel universe? What can you do in
you are not satisfied with your own life, if you made mistakes you
cannot correct, if you lost someone that you loved, if you wish to
change anything in your life, you might want to go to a parallel
universe hoping that the grass will be greener. But as the expression
says, it is seldom the case and you could find yourself in a worse
it is because the problem is yourself. Your attitude towards life,
your actions that have terrible consequences. And unless you change
your nature or your attitude towards life, no other parallel universe
could change anything to your life. It could in theory give you a
second chance if you do intend to change, but wouldn’t it be
preferable to change in your own universe first? And what about the
ethic of stealing the life of someone else, even if this someone is
your counterpart in a parallel universe? Unless you replace your twin
when he or she is just about to die…
What have they done to explain it and what have they done in those
Returning to the U.S.S. Enterprise from a competition, Worf
finds reality changing, and is troubled when no one else seems to
returns victorious from the Bat'leth competition and walks straight
into his surprise birthday party. He begins to feel dizzy and
disoriented, and is confused when his cake seems to change from
chocolate to yellow and an absent Picard seems to appear out of
nowhere. Worf is later summoned to Engineering, where Data and Geordi
show him how the Argus Array has been reprogrammed to spy on the
Federation. Worf spots a Cardassian ship in the Array's imaging logs
and prepares to scan the area, but suddenly feels dizzy again, and
recovers to see Data and Geordi working on the opposite side of the
room. Spooked, he goes to Sickbay to visit Beverly, and she states he
is probably reacting to the concussion that cost him the Bat'leth
tournament. Shocked, Worf tells her he received no concussion and
hurries to his quarters to retrieve his trophy to prove he won the
contest. When he gets there, he finds a trophy that reads "Ninth Place."
Beverly tries to ease Worf's worries by assuring him that his memory
will return if he slowly settles back into his routine. He gets back
to work, and is on the Bridge when he is alerted to an approaching
Cardassian ship. Picard speaks with the Captain, Gul Nador, and
explains that the Enterprise is in the area to repair the Array.
Worf tells Picard that Nador's ship is the same one they saw in the
Array's imaging logs, but Picard and the crew are confused — they
never suspected the Cardassians of tampering with the Array.
Frustrated, Worf fills Troi in on the bizarre turn of events when
Geordi arrives and says that the Array's problem was a simple
malfunction. Worf starts to protest, but feels dizzy again and notices
a painting on his wall has moved and changed appearance. He
experiences a wave of dizziness in which Troi's clothing changes, then
another that leaves him on the Bridge with the ship at Red Alert and a
Cardassian warship on the viewscreen.
Picard orders Worf to raise the shields, but he is too confused to do
so before the warship fires. Riker takes over and retaliates, and
while the Enterprise escapes, the Cardassians destroy the Array.
A disappointed Picard confronts Worf about his failure, and when Worf
mentions memory loss, no one knows what he is talking about. Afraid he
is losing his mind, he returns to his quarters, and is surprised when
Troi arrives and tells him that she is his wife! Telling her he has no
recollection of their marriage, he explains what he has been going
through and is gratified that at least Troi seems willing to try to
help him. Later, in Engineering, Worf explains his experiences to
Data, who points out that Geordi was present every time things went
awry. They eagerly hurry to talk to Geordi, and are shocked to learn
he is dead.
looking for clues, Data hooks Geordi's VISOR up to the diagnostic
array, and Worf has another dizzy spell. He wakes up to find himself
in a commander's uniform, and Data tells Worf that he has detected a
quantum flux in his RNA. They report to Riker, who is now Captain, to
explain this problem. Data says Worf's RNA indicates that he does not
belong in their universe. Data and Wesley Crusher, who is now a part
of the crew, discover that a quantum fissure in the space-time
continuum is causing this. Hoping to find where Worf belongs, the crew
scans the fissure with a subspace differential pulse. While they
search, the Enterprise is attacked by a Bajoran ship, and the
fissure begins to destabilize. Realities begin to merge into one
another, and hundreds of Enterprises appear.
realizes the only way to stop this phenomenon is to find Worf's
Enterprise and send him back through the fissure to seal it. They
manage to locate the right ship, and Worf boards his original
shuttlecraft, re-modulated to seal the fissure. Worf soon arrives
aboard his Enterprise, happy to finally be home.
Caught in the beginnings of an ion storm, Kirk, McCoy and Uhura
interrupt their negotiations with the Halkans for dilithium crystals,
to return to the U.S.S. Enterprise. Scotty beams the landing
party aboard as a burst from the storm hits the starship. The
transporter malfunctions, sending Kirk, McCoy, Scotty and Uhura into
an alternate universe. In this world, they soon discover the "Galactic
Empire" is maintained by fear and assassination. Now, aboard the
Imperial Starship Enterprise, the four must find a way to
remain undetected until they can return to their own universe.
Meanwhile, the parallel versions of Kirk, Scott, McCoy and Uhura have
been beamed on board the positive U.S.S. Enterprise. Their
behavior is so different from their counterparts that Spock
immediately realizes something is wrong. He had the four imprisoned
until the transporter could be checked and repaired.
the I.S.S. Enterprise, the parallel Chekov is foiled in an
attempt to assassinate Kirk. When Kirk refuses to give an order to
destroy the Halkans, who have refused to give up their dilithium
crystals, the parallel Spock becomes suspicious.
Imperial Fleet sends a secret message to the parallel Spock, telling
him to kill Captain Kirk and assume command of the starship. Finding
an unexpected ally in the parallel Spock, Kirk continues to stall
while his three comrades gather the information needed to send them
back to their own universe.
Parallel Spock has no desire to become captain, and therefore a mark
for assassination. Along with Lieutenant Marlena Moreau, who wants the
parallel Kirk back because she is "the Captain's woman," they help
return the four U.S.S. Enterprise officers to their own world.
Before he goes, Kirk talks to the bearded Spock, telling him the
advantages of a Federation-like system over the anarchy of this
universe. Spock seems almost convinced that he should in fact get rid
of his Kirk, seize control of the I.S.S. Enterprise, and
manipulate the Imperial Starfleet into working toward a more civilized
Star Trek Deep Space
(season 2, episode 443)
mishap in the wormhole sends Kira and Bashir into the mirror universe
where Bajor is a tyrannical power and humans are slaves.
experiencing operational difficulties while traveling through the
wormhole, Kira and Bashir find themselves in an alternate universe
where the space station is populated by exact doubles of Garak and Odo,
and is run by Kira's counterpart, Kira II. In this universe, they have
no knowledge of the wormhole, and humans have no rights whatsoever.
Because of this, Bashir is sentenced to manual labor, working under
the sadistic, human-hating Odo II. Later, Kira II tells Kira about the
last crossover, which occurred with Captain Kirk a century ago. That
incident led to the formation of a powerful alliance between the
Klingon and Cardassian empires in which Bajor is also a major player.
Kira II tells Kira that she cannot allow Kira and Bashir to live, but
Kira convinces her counterpart to spare them and let her try to find a
steals a moment with Bashir and tells him what she knows. Since a
transporter accident caused the last crossover, he thinks they might
be able to escape using another one, and tries to talk O'Brien's
counterpart into helping him. Unfortunately, the beaten, put-upon
Terran has little interest in risking the wrath of his superiors.
Meanwhile, Kira almost succeeds in securing Quark II's help, but he is
arrested by Garak, Kira II's aide, for helping Terrans escape the
then meets Sisko's counterpart, who receives better treatment than the
other Terrans because he runs missions for Kira II. Afterwards, Kira
II reassures Kira that she has nothing to fear, and suggests they
should become closer. Later, Garak II tells Kira that he intends to
dispose of Kira II, and that he will let Kira and Bashir escape if she
pretends to be Kira II, then resign and allow Garak II to take over.
Garak II then reveals Bashir will be killed if she does not comply.
hurries to Bashir and tells him they must find a way back to the
Runabout and make their escape through the wormhole. She fills Sisko
II in on Garak II's plan, hoping he will help out of loyalty to Kira
II, but he is unmoved. That night, Garak II prepares to put his plan
into effect at a lavish party thrown for Kira by Kira II. Meanwhile,
Bashir is able to take advantage of an accident at the ore-processing
plant where he labors, killing Odo II and escaping.
of Bashir's escape soon reaches the party, while Bashir manages to
locate O'Brien's counterpart, who decides to help this time. However,
the two are caught and brought to the party to face Kira II. Despite
Kira's pleas, Kira II sentences Bashir to death. When she turns to
O'Brien II, he makes an impassioned speech, telling the assembled
crowd what Bashir has revealed about a universe where Terrans have
respect and dignity. His words move Sisko, who turns on Kira II and
helps Kira and Bashir to escape. The two return to their universe,
leaving Sisko and O'Brien's counterparts to fight for their rights in
their own world.
Star Trek Deep Space
Shattered Mirror (season 4, episode 492)
follows his son into a war-torn alternate universe after Jake is lured
there by the living counterpart of his late mother.
can hardly believe his eyes when his father introduces him to a woman
who looks, talks and acts exactly like his late mother, Jennifer. She
and Sisko reveal that this is Jennifer — at least, her double
from a mirror universe which Sisko once visited, where she was married
to his now-dead counterpart. Sisko leaves the two of them alone for
awhile. But when he returns, Jennifer and Jake are nowhere to be found.
All that remains is a small device, which Sisko realizes is used for
transport to the mirror universe. He activates it and appears on Terok
Nor, the other universe's Deep Space 9, where he meets O'Brien's rebel
counterpart and announces he is taking Jake home. Pointing weapons at
Sisko, O'Brien replies that neither he nor Jake is going anywhere.
O'Brien tells Sisko they need his help in their fight against the
tyrannical Alliance forces. The rebel group built its own Defiant,
but is having trouble making the powerful warship operational, and the
Alliance is due to attack Terok Nor in four days. Sisko asks to see
Jake, who tells his father he came to be with Jennifer. Angry, Sisko
takes Jennifer to task for using his son, but still agrees to help.
Elsewhere, leading a fleet of Klingon and Cardassian ships, the
Alliance Regent, Worf's counterpart, lashes out at Garak's counterpart
for losing Terok Nor to the rebels. Garak swears his loyalty as they
prepare to take back the station.
meets up with the counterpart for Kira, once Terok Nor's leader but
now a prisoner of the rebels. Meanwhile, Worf learns about the
Defiant's construction and increases the fleet's speed to the
station. Back on Terok Nor, Jake grows more fond of Jennifer, despite
Sisko's concerns, and Jennifer reveals to Sisko that she can't stop
thinking of Jake as the son she'll never have. Their moment is
interrupted by news that the Alliance fleet is less than eight hours
Needing another plan, Sisko asks Kira for help, reminding her that
Worf and the Alliance probably blame her for the loss of Terok Nor.
Kira tells Sisko that Alliance ships have targeting systems that are
easily fooled, information he uses to create a diversion while
finishing work on the Defiant. Jennifer assists him and talks
about her deepening bond with Jake, then decides to return the child
to Deep Space 9 and out of harm's way. The Defiant now ready,
Sisko volunteers to lead its rebel crew in battle. Meanwhile, Jennifer
prepares to send Jake home. But the pair encounters the evil Kira, who
has now escaped and trains her weapon on them.
plans to take Jennifer as a hostage in order to get back into the
Regent's good graces — then prepares to fire on Jake. But Jennifer
jumps into the line of fire, struck to the ground by the blast.
Learning the truth about Jake and Jennifer's connection, Kira spares
his life — but promises to collect on this debt later. Back on the
Defiant, Sisko, O'Brien and the rebel crew force Worf and the
Alliance to retreat after a fierce battle. Sisko returns to Terok Nor,
but arrives to find Jake at Jennifer's deathbed. She summons the
strength to wish him goodbye, then dies, leaving father and son to
deal with her loss a second painful time.
Star Trek Voyager:
(season 2, episode 137)
space anomaly generates a duplicate Voyager and crew, but only
one ship can survive an assault by Vidiian invaders.
Voyager enters a plasma cloud to evade approaching Vidiian ships,
Ensign Wildman goes into labor and delivers a baby girl. But as the
crew emerges from the cloud, a series of astounding events occur: the
warp engines stall, the antimatter supplies drain, and proton bursts
cause a hull breach. What's more, Kim is sucked out into space, Kes
vanishes in a mysterious void, and Wildman's baby dies.
the hull breach widens, the ship is forced to run on emergency power.
Another proton burst hits and Chakotay orders everyone off the bridge.
To her surprise, Janeway sees herself walk across the bridge, which
she assumes is a spatial fluctuation caused by their passage through
the plasma cloud. Janeway visits Wildman in Sickbay and admires her
newborn baby, who appears to be fine. The crew also beams aboard an
unconscious patient who's identical to Kes.
Kes "double" reports the same series of astounding occurrences, which
leads Janeway to speculate that there's another Voyager nearby.
Apparently, a divergence field has caused all sensor readings to
double and every particle on the ship to duplicate. Unfortunately,
there isn't enough antimatter to sustain both vessels. Janeway alerts
the other Voyager crew, led by a duplicate Janeway. After a
merger of the ships fails, Janeway decides to go over to the other
ship through the void Kes disappeared into.
two Janeways meet and strategize their options. The captain of the
more heavily damaged Voyager proposes to self-destruct her ship
and crew to save the other Voyager. With the Vidiians closing
in, the two captains know they must act quickly or both ships and
crews will be destroyed. Meanwhile, the Vidiians board one of the
Desperate to steal healthy organs to help battle a plague known as the
Phage, the Vidiians begin attacking crewmembers. One of the Janeway
captains decides to act. She sets her ship on self-destruct and orders
the duplicate Kim to take Wildman's baby through the void. The
Vidiians are destroyed when the duplicate Voyager explodes,
while Kim, the baby and the other Voyager crew are saved.
There But For the
Grace of God
1, episode 119)
exploring an alien Stargate complex on P3R233, a world that appears to
have been destroyed by the Goa'uld, Daniel Jackson discovers a slab
that, when activated, turns into a shimmering mirror. He touches the
mirror and gets a mild jolt but thinks nothing of it until he returns
through the Stargate. Then, he finds himself in an alternate reality,
a place that looks like Earth but where nothing is quite as it was.
The most distressing difference is that this world is under attack by
the Goa'ulds, who have wiped out half-a-billion people and are about
to capture the Stargate Command. O'Neill faces-off against Teal'c, who
in this reality is still loyal to the Goa'uld, and Daniel tries to
escape through the Stargate with information that may save his world
from the fate of this alternate reality.
Point of View
(season 3, episode 306)
is taken aback when an alternate reality version of Samantha Carter
and the deceased Major Kawalsky are found in a secured building in top
secret Area 51. To transport themselves to our present day Earth, they
used the Quantum Mirror (previously seen in "There But For The Grace
of God"). When the alternate Carter and Kawalsky are taken to SGC for
debriefing, they can't believe how different everything is in this
reality. Here Colonel Jack O'Neill is alive, whereas in their
alternate reality he was married to Dr. Carter before his recent death
at the hands of the Goa'uld. Teal'c is an ally rather than the enemy,
Major Kawalsky has been dead for several months, and their Samantha
Carter is a Major who is identical in appearance with the exception of
her short hair.
Carter begins to suffer from temporal distortion, a side effect caused
by travel through the quantum mirror. Major Carter determines that Dr.
Carter and Major Kawalsky will die unless they are returned to their
alternate reality. Unfortunately in their reality, the Goa'uld are
swarming the SGC and returning means certain death. SG-1 must use
their present day resources and knowledge to return with their new
acquaintances and overthrow the Goa'uld.
Infinite amount of energy
before jumping on these ideas, keep in mind that they might be used in
a movie coming out next year. Please contact me to find out if these
ideas have been used or rejected for other options. I can always
invent something else if you wish to do things differently.)
there is such a thing as almost infinite amount of energy contained in
the vacuum of space, anywhere. And most likely we will be able to tap
into this energy pretty soon. You could use this as the energy you
need to open a rift to another world. It is called Zero-Point Energy (ZPE)
and you can read all about it here:
could also talk about cold fusion, which is a nuclear reaction
produced in a test tube without any heat. But it was in the movie The
Saint and the science to explain it at the moment is at an all time
low. Nobody believes in it. Apparently people were able to do it but
never to reproduce it. Nanotechnology could not be of help. It is
basically very small robots that could in theory build something or
rebuild something, from bio matter to industrial construction. I
cannot really see this as helping you to open a rift to another
is how you justify everything: your device will use the Zero-Point
Energy produced by virtual particle fluctuations in the vacuum of
space in order to create a multitude of microscopic wormholes by which
matter can travel to a parallel universe. This is so great because the
energy we are talking about concerns the energy of virtual particles
in space that we cannot see and that flicker in and out of existence
into perhaps a parallel universe. Isn’t this wonderful? Your character
could have invented a way to use this energy in order to open a
multitude of microscopic wormholes capable of shifting someone into a
parallel universe, particle by particle. What is interesting is that
where the energy comes from is where the micro-wormholes will be
created, in the vacuum of space. It is a match made in heaven.
don’t believe now that an antigravity device would be your best
solution. Right now you would be tapping into the energy from the
virtual particles contained in the vacuum of space (quantum
fluctuations) in order to open a multitude of micro-wormholes. You are
basically sending all the particles of someone into these micro-wormholes
into a parallel universe. You found a way with a device contained in a
suitcase to create those micro-wormholes that are a rift or window to
a parallel universe. It could be a very nice high-tech suitcase like
in the movie Deadzone when the President pushes a button to send the
missiles to Russia.
could be some buttons in the metallic suitcase and some sort of price
gun (code bar reader) like the ones we see in grocery stores when they
read the code bar. This gun could be attached to the suitcase by a
twisted phone cord. What is needed to start the machine: set the
frequency at which matter should vibrate or you could say the
frequency at which the parallel universe is vibrating (this is in
order to make sure they go to the right parallel universe) and sort of
scan the person with the code bar reader in order to open the micro-wormholes
that will disintegrate the person and send him or her into the
parallel universe. I guess he should also scan the suitcase and anyone
else he wishes to bring along in order to get everyone and everything
he wants with him. Of course, all this is only limited by your
imagination and your special effects department. You could use a laser
gun if you wish and vaporize the persons and things you wish to send
to the other universe.
Energy Important Facts
point energy has been called "the ultimate quantum free lunch" (Science,
Vol. 275, 1/10/97). During the early years of quantum mechanics, Paul
Dirac theorized that the vacuum was actually filled with particles in
negative energy states (Proc. R. Soc. London A, 126, 360, 1930)
thus giving rise to the concept of the "physical vacuum" which is not
empty at all. Quantum mechanics also predicted that invisible
particles could become materialized for a short time and that these
virtual particle appearances should exert a force that is measurable.
Recently, ZPE was mentioned in Science (Vol. 282, Dec. 18,
1998, p. 2157) in an article called the "Breakthrough of the Year."
Two teams of astronomers have confirmed that distant galaxies are
accelerating apart. Furthermore, 2/3 of all astronomers now
acknowledge the data as valid. Thus the cosmological constant
envisioned by Einstein is being reconsidered and an antigravity
force being postulated. Physicists have also interpreted the force
as "the evanescent particles that flicker in and out of existence in
‘empty’ space that gives space its springiness, shoving it apart."
Scientific American seems to agree ("Cosmological Antigravity",
January, 1999, p. 53): "The aggregate energy represented by these
‘virtual’ particles, like other forms of energy, could exert a
gravitational force, which could be either attractive or repulsive
depending on physical principles that are not yet understood." The
cosmological constant represents energy inherent in space itself and
coincidentally is almost exactly equal to the average density
of ordinary matter in the universe (10-29 gm/cc), at this
particular time in its evolution.
Forward subscribes to the classical notion that there is no known
limit to the electromagnetic wavelength or frequency in the vacuum.
What we see from Dr. Puthoff's approach to this is that he supports
the majority view of a cutoff, which is based on Sakharov's work. The
cutoff frequency (perhaps considering hf=mc2) is called the
Planck frequency which is around 1043 Hertz. This
opposes what we see as far as Moray King (in the book, Tapping the
Zero Point Energy) and Dr. Forward saying that there is an
infinite amount of energy available. In a later section we will see
that Dr. Puthoff's theory derives gravity, inertia, heat, and also
electricity directly from ZPE considerations. In Dr. Forward's paper,
he suggests using micro-fabricated sandwiches of ultrafine metal
dielectric layers. He also points out that ZPE seems to have a
definite potential as an energy source.
First ZPE Patent
History was made on 12-31-96 when for the first time ever, ZPE was the
subject of a U. S. patent (#5,590,031). Dr. Frank Mead, from Edwards
AFB, has designed receivers to be spherical collectors of zero
point radiation with hemisphere reflectors of beat frequencies. He
point electromagnetic radiation energy which may potentially be used
to power interplanetary craft as well as provide for society’s other
needs has remained unharnessed."
Proposing to convert zero point electromagnetic radiation to
electrical energy, […]
Microscopic Wormholes Important Facts
is what I found in a book called “Achilles in the Quantum Universe” by
Richard Morris in order to justify these microscopic wormholes you can
use to justify how we can travel to a parallel universe:
Don't forget, there is no such thing as "empty" space.
Virtual particles are constantly being created and destroyed
everywhere. The vacuum is filled with the quantum fields associated
with these particles. Furthermore, energy, which can be calculated,
is associated with all this activity. When this calculation is
performed, the self-energy of the vacuum turns out to be enormous.
Since mass and energy are equivalent, this energy should give rise to
huge gravitational forces. These forces would not vary with distance;
on the contrary, they would be the same everywhere. In other words,
there would be a cosmological constant.
When Einstein conceived of the cosmological constant, he
associated it with repulsive forces. The constant can be either
positive or negative, however, and the forces associated with it can
be either attractive or repulsive. The forces associated with quantum
fluctuations in the vacuum should be so great that the universe should
never have been able to expand beyond microscopic dimensions. One
could say that accepted scientific theory predicts that the
dimensions of the universe should be much smaller than those of an
In 1988, the Harvard physicist Sidney Coleman published a
paper entitled "Why There Is Nothing Rather than Something" in which
he pointed out that if microscopic wormholes connected our universe
with an infinite number of other universes, then particles could
presumably pass through the wormholes during their brief existence.
Coleman calculated that this would have the effect of exactly
canceling out the cosmological constant in our universe.
Coleman's results created a great deal of excitement within
the theoretical physics community. He had found the first real
evidence that other universes might exist. He had certainly not
established their reality beyond any doubt. After all, his evidence
was highly theoretical in nature. But he had shown that the
assumption that other universes were real could lead to a solution to
one of the most baffling problems of theoretical physics.
Stephen Hawking says that particles may acquire certain
properties because they are constantly traveling to other universes
through wormholes. Hawking points out that if particles are able to
disappear into and emerge from wormholes, their masses will be greater
than if the particles always remained within the same universe.
Furthermore, there would be similar effects on the particles' charge.
If microscopic wormholes exist, they cannot be seen. Thus if an
electron traveled through a wormhole to another universe, it would
seem to suddenly disappear. Again, this is something that is not
observed. Electrons just don't suddenly vanish. But this does not
contradict Hawking's theory, which is a theory of particle exchange.
According to Hawking when an electron leaves our universe, a second
electron emerges from the wormhole. Neither universe gains or loses an
electron; they simply exchange particles with one another.
Every electron is identical to every other electron. They
all have the same charge and the same mass. Thus wormhole exchange is
a process that cannot be directly observed. As far as we are concerned,
an electron was there a moment ago, and it is still there now. There
is no way of knowing whether it is the same electron or a different
one. However, if calculations were performed that gave the correct
values for the electron's properties, such as mass and charge, we
would have real evidence that wormholes and other universes existed.
As I write this, such calculations have not been
successfully carried out. All I can say is that it is possible to
conjecture that particles might acquire charges and masses in this way.
Naturally, there are other possibilities. For example, if the laws of
physics vary from universe to universe, particle charge and mass
might be matters of chance. It could be that in some universes the
proton weighs 1,836 times as much as an electron, and in others it
weighs five times as much. On the other hand, it could turn out that
quantum mechanics and yet-to-be-developed particle theories will tell
us that some values of charge and mass are more probable than others.
As I write this, speculation about such matters has hardly begun. As a
result, it is possible to do little more than cite the different
INFINITY OF UNIVERSES
so very long ago, the concept of alternate realities was encountered
only in science fiction. Today, the idea of the existence of an
infinity of other universes, some of which may be very different from
our own, is an ingredient of respectable scientific thought. As we
have seen, no one knows whether such universes really exist, but the
assumption they do allows us to deal with problems that would
otherwise seem intractable. If there are other universes, the fact
that the existence of life seems to depend on so many improbable
coincidences seems less puzzling. If there are other universes, it may
explain why the cosmological constant is so small. And if there are
other universes, we may eventually discover why subatomic particles
have certain properties. Scientists may even find out why the physical
laws they have been studying for many centuries have the particular
character they do.
parallel universe made of antimatter
a multitude of parallel universes (multiverse)?
could explain the alternate universe as an antimatter universe which
is the reflection of the universe made of normal matter, but at the
moment in Quantum Physics everybody is talking about an infinite
amount of parallel universes. This is what can be deducted from the
fact that a particle can be at many places at once. And you never know,
if there is a sequel to your movie or TV series, you might want to
involve many parallel universes. Better keep your doors open.
well, you would limit yourself a lot by saying that if a character
from one universe meets his counterpart in another universe then they
will annihilate each other. You could always say I suppose that the
balance of matter in each parallel universe is important otherwise the
whole universe could collapse. But to my knowledge there is nothing in
science that could support that. There is always the possible
cosmological constant of Einstein that is near zero and could change
the laws of physics as we know it if more matter suddenly goes from
one universe to the other, but I would not venture to say that. The
whole purpose of the movie or the episode is to be able to go from one
parallel universe to the other. Why would you want to impose
limitations on yourself that could prevent you to do things in future
scripts? As well, I think one human could not make a big difference
considering all the matter there is in the universe.
course all the sci-fi stuff and the technology can be secondary, only
a mean to tell a good story. Like Star Trek The Next Generation. It is
as much about love, friendship, humanity, acceptance, rites of passage
and sociology than science fiction. It has been said that Star Trek
was a soap set in space. Get rid of the ship and technology and you
still pretty much have the same stories and feelings. I suppose this
is a positive thing, it is very important to have a good story and a
good script. Let me say one thing though. Parallels from The Next
Generation was 10 times better than the episodes Crossover and
Shattered Mirror from Deep Space Nine because in TNG we could feel the
science, it was explained to us. The science was more than a mean to
tell a story, science was the story. That makes great sci-fi.
Possible ideas to explore
you are looking for ways to oblige your character to go back to its
own universe, I suppose you could still use my previous ideas and say
that having opened a rift between two worlds renders those two worlds
unstable. Also someone who goes into micro-wormholes might not be in
perfect health once in a parallel universe. Strange things could
happen to him.
possibilities, our micro-wormholes could only stay open for a certain
amount of time and then you would lose your chance to ever go back to
the original universe. If you were to use the device again, there is
no way you could end up in the parallel universe of your choice. You
could end up in a totally different universe instead (like if choosing
where you go would be out of your control). So in that case you would
not necessarily need the device again in order to get back to the
original universe, the doorway or rift could still be open for 72
hours for example. You could still need the device I suppose to get
the person to go through the micro-wormholes. But if the micro-wormholes
shut for good, activating the machine again would bring you into a
totally different parallel universe.
could still talk about compromising the two realities, micro-wormholes
could join together and create a bigger wormhole exerting strong
gravitational or electromagnetic fields.
even the micro-wormholes could join together to form a black hole
capable of swallowing the Earth of one parallel universe and spit it
back into the other parallel universe via a white hole. Or both
parallel universes could have a huge black hole linked together by a
wormhole with a singularity in the middle crushing everything from
both universes (or part of the universe anyway). Or strong
gravitational and electromagnetic fields coming out of the micro-wormholes
could affect the planet, the magnetic poles and the weather system.
Both worlds could also annihilate each other like a particle and an
anti-particle canceling each other out, but I don’t like this idea too
much as, like I said before, we do not have here a universe made of
matter and another one made of antimatter. We have many parallel
universes existing on their own rights and they are made of the same
could still talk about compromising the two realities, micro-wormholes
could join together and create a bigger wormhole exerting strong
gravitational and electromagnetic fields and eventually develop into
the beginning of a black hole on each side of the wormhole. So it
would be small at the beginning and could develop into swallowing the
whole planet and solar system if not closed in time with the device.
So both parallel universes will have the beginning of a black hole
linked together by a wormhole with a singularity in the middle
crushing everything that is sucked in there.
course there is a way to send everyone back in the black hole/wormhole
as you can read below in the excerpt from the book HyperSpace from
Michio Kaku. In the movie, I guess that going right in the middle of
where the whole reversed tornado is happening could be the solution.
In the movie The Philadelphia Experiment they use this heavy truck,
almost a tank, in order to stay on land in order to reach the center
of the funnel while the wormhole is sucking everything. Then they get
out of this heavy truck and get sucked right in the middle, so they
end up not being crushed by the singularity.
would also have the effect of the black hole localized to where the
rift has been open. Remember that we are talking about a baby black
hole otherwise the planet would not stand a chance, it would be sucked
in in no time. I would not make it global but I would say that if it
continues like that, the whole planet will be sucked in and crushed at
the singularity inside the black hole.
effect of the micro-wormholes and having all the atoms of someone
vanish into those micro-wormholes should be interesting enough as it
should not be like in Sliders. When the micro-wormholes collapse
together to form a bigger wormhole, you would then have something like
a funnel, small at the beginning, that brings any small object inside
with the wind. Then it would grow bigger like a huge funnel and then I
think it should be from above your head and you could see wonderful
images like a reversed tornado in which many things would be sucked
into. At this point I believe you should go and rent or buy the movie
Philadelphia Experiment (the first movie) because I believe this is
the best image of a wormhole we have seen. The whole place is like a
tornado, deserted as many things are already gone in the wormhole.
Houses, buildings, etc. Even the images on the computer in
Philadelphia Experiment are wonderful and you could get inspiration
from that. Here is an image of how the two universes would be linked
together and could be represented on a computerized image in the movie
(it is from the book of Michio Kaku called HyperSpace):
Matter of Time - Stargate SG-1
morning on the British television there was an episode of Stargate SG-1
that, if you get the chance to rent or buy, might be useful to your
you decided to have a black hole near the Earth, then this episode
shows you great images (better than the Philadelphia Experiment) and
might give you some ideas.
that this episode is not about parallel universes, neither is Stargate
SG-1 as a whole, but they do use wormholes and wormholes are a
convenient way of going to parallel universes. Wormholes are not the
only way in order to go to a parallel universe, you could just as
easily have a window like a mirror in a frame. That is what they did
in the episode Point of View of Stargate SG-1, they use an alien
technology that opens a Quantum Mirror (as mentioned before). I do not
believe that they explain how this Quantum Mirror works, but the use
of the word Quantum is often thrown at us to justify the existence of
parallel universes because it is at the quantum level (atomic world)
that we have the only proof that parallel universes might exist.
is a description of the episode:
attempting to save the members of SG-10 from a black hole on planet
P3X 451, the SG-1 team activates the Stargate and exposes themselves
to the hole's gravitational pull. Trying to break free, the team shuts
down the gate's power and in the ensuing explosions Teal'c and Daniel
are badly injured. Even without power the black hole's gravity
continues to draw the SGC closer to the swirling wormhole. With the
intense gravity field warping the space/time continuum, the SGC loses
contact with the outside world and the Pentagon sends O'Neill's former
mate Colonel Cromwell to investigate. Cromwell is tormented with guilt
for deserting O'Neill during a Soviet mission and volunteers to
partner him in the attempt to save the SGC. Time slows to a near stand-still
inside the SGC, where only O'Neill and Cromwell are left. Carter
scrambles for a solution before the SGC and then the Earth are torn
apart by the black hole's gravitational tides.
Comments about A Matter of Time
Inter-dimensional travel – going into another dimension
the very beginning, when Samantha explains to Colonel O’Neill what is
a wormhole, she tells him about inter-dimensional travel (isn’t that
annoying when O’Neill stops Samantha from telling us about the science?).
I noticed as well in the book of Michio Kaku (HyperSpace) that he
talks about two things: wormhole and dimensional gateway/dimensional
windows. I still think that it is wrong to talk about inter-dimensional
travel because you are not going from one dimension to another. The
world basically might have 10 or 11 or 26 dimensions altogether and
the other dimensions have all curled up at a scale smaller than a
subatomic particle. We live in a world where quantum mechanics and
relativity can be linked together in higher dimensions, because of
those other dimensions, but we are already living in all of these
dimensions even though we cannot see them. Going anywhere else using a
wormhole or a window brings us in the same universe or a parallel
universe with the same number of dimensions, not to another dimension.
Michio Kaku speaks of dimensional gateway is because the curvature of
space - due to the fact that there are many dimensions - could open up
a window (not a wormhole) in which you could see another parallel
universe like if it was in a frame on the wall. He calls such windows
“dimensional” because the superstrings theory is a theory of many
dimensions in order to unite the grand theories of this world. So I
supposed you could still say inter-dimensional travel, even though it
is not exactly correct because you are not going from one dimension to
another, you are using the many dimensions way of looking at the
universe to make it possible to travel to a parallel universe. As well,
I would not say at any time: going to another dimension, because this
Relativity and Strong Gravity Fields from the black hole = time
dilation + slow motion
theory of relativity states that while in a strong gravitational field
time goes slower. In the episode A Matter of Time the people on the
other side of the Stargate are going in slow motion compared to us
because they are in a strong gravity field caused by a newly formed
black hole. The signals they send are playing in slow motion and need
to be speed up to be understood here on Earth where time is normal.
And the robot camera they sent in the gateway is transmitting what it
films image by image. They cannot close the stargate and eventually
the relativistic effects are extended to this side of the wormhole.
The whole area on Earth where the stargate is - is running slower than
the rest of the planet even though the strong gravity field is not
being felt that strongly outside of the command control area. If the
time dilation process was already so pronounced, then they would have
been pulled apart by then, and Samantha Carter
mentions this in the episode, she says that it is not possible.
Relativity is not a problem you should be worried about, though it is
true that near a black hole suddenly time would be running at a slower
rate. The whole planet could suffer the same fate, as well as the
planet on the other side of the wormhole. So in theory everybody would
be on the same time rate, so it would not go slower from our point of
view, it would be like if everything was normal even though, compared
with places like other planets, our time on Earth would be running
slower. BUT!!! If like in the Stargate episode there is a black hole
forming only on one side of the wormhole, then yes, there could be a
time difference that could be quite important between both universes.
I suggest you have beginnings of black holes (or black holes in
formation, not established ones otherwise we could not survive for
long) at both ends of the wormhole. If you really want to play with
relativity, you could say that nearer the black hole in formation
everything is going slower, or that suddenly time is running slower
outside the area where the black hole is in formation. It would be
like in the episode of Stargate though, and it might be heavy for your
course you can also just ignore it by taking into account that the
time rate slowing down is a planet wide effect on both parallel
universes, or decide to think that the time difference is not that big
anyway and does not need to be talked about in the movie (it would
only be big near the singularity). Your choice.
Another dimension or a parallel universe?
someone come from another dimension? This is the vocabulary from old
sci-fi movie, when it was believed that our world had 5 dimensions
instead of 4. It does not mean much today and it is even confusing.
There are perhaps 11 dimensions now and most of the other dimensions
are curled up into such a tiny ball that it is at the Planck length
that these dimensions reside. If you were living in another dimension,
where would you be? The other dimensions are smaller than the nucleus
of an atom. I think it would be best if you talk about parallel
universes, alternate reality, other universe, other reality, parallel
worlds, alternate worlds, multiverse, crossover to another reality,
thing that is very important is to not talk about “another dimension”
or “inter-dimensional travel” or anything to do with dimensions. This
is past date and no longer relevant in the actual state of science. We
are not talking about dimensions, we are talking about parallel
universes, alternate universes, alternate realities, quantum realities,
Parallel Universes in Scientific Books
just finished reading some relevant sections of about a dozen science
books and I realized that it would be simpler to scan the most
relevant information and put it here. I know that this is long, you do
not have to read it all. I just thought that if you are to write a
script about parallel universes, it might be important to have all the
facts about it before presenting your script. The only solution is to
read this and you will have a clearer picture. For copyright reasons I
tried to keep it short and I therefore invite you to buy those books
as they are very interesting, accessible to a large public (since they
are classified as popular science), and would certainly help you with
your future sci-fi stories.
three first excerpts are all about the episode Parallels of Star Trek
The Next Generation. I know it sounds weird that I am bringing you a
lot of information about this episode but in trying to explain that
episode I feel that Andre Bormanis and Lawrence M. Krauss resumed
perfectly everything the other books were saying. These three excerpts
are essentially saying the same thing in different ways.
Star Trek - Science
Bormanis (Science Adviser on the Star Trek series) p.65
Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics
Science Log, Stardate 47393.5. Second Officer Data recording.
has unwittingly discovered what appears to be stunning confirmation
the "many-worlds" interpretation
En route to the
after a short leave
absence, Lieutenant Worf's shuttle collided with a quantum fissure.
The encounter only minimally damaged the shuttle. Mister Worf however,
entered a state
For Worf, the dimensional barriers among the infinite number
alternate universes predicted by the many-worlds theory had broken
down. All that was needed to propel him into an alternate universe was
a narrow-band energy emission. The emissions from Lieutenant Commander
La Forge's VISOR provided the required energy trigger.
Once the conundrum
Mister Worf's interdimensional translocations was understood, the
each parallel universe proceeded to the location
the quantum fissure. As Worf traveled through the fissure on a reverse
trajectory, his state
quantum flux stabilized. Then each
used its primary drive system to generate a broad-spectrum warp field
that effectively sealed the fissure.
Physics at the turn of the twentieth century-what we today '- call "classical"
physics-conceived the universe to be a comfortable, predictable sort
of place. The laws of physics could readily forecast the motions of
the stars and planets as well as a falling stone. The universe seemed
to run like an elegant
clock, and everything in nature behaved according to a set of
straightforward rules. Many physicists believed that there wasn't much
work left to do in basic physics except fill in a few minor details.
the theory of
developed to explain the behavior of atoms and subatomic particles in
produced much excitement and no small degree of agitation in the world
of physics. Experimental predictions based on the theory were
remarkably accurate. But the foundation of the theory rested on
principles that scientists who came of age in the late nineteenth
century found extremely hard to accept. According to quantum mechanics,
a subatomic particle can sometimes be in two places at the same time;
electrons can "tunnel" through otherwise insurmountable energy
barriers; two particles separated by light-years of space can somehow
recognize each other's quantum states without communicating. Neils
Bohr, one of the pioneers of quantum theory, once said, "Anyone who
isn't shocked by quantum mechanics doesn't understand it."
Quantum mechanics upset the classical order by asserting that the
fundamental particles that make up all matter obeyed a set of rules
that were essentially statistical in nature. Quantum theory makes
mathematically precise predictions, but they are predications about
probabilities. For example, quantum theory can predict with great
an electron will carom off in some particular direction after a
collision with another particle, but it cannot predict
direction the electron will actually move after the collision. Albert
Einstein was particularly disturbed by the probabilistic nature of
quantum theory. He summed up his objectives to the theory in his oft-repeated
phrase, "God does not play dice with the universe."
The many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics
an attempt to restore strict determinism to the world of physics. For
simplicity, let's say there is a fifty-fifty chance of an electron
having one of two distinct energy values (let's call them A and B),
and we measure the electron's energy and discover it is B. Then,
according to the many-worlds theory, there
is another universe
the energy of the electron is measured as A. This universe is in fact
created when we measure the energy of the electron. It might look like
God has simply tossed a coin and it came up A, but in this parallel
universe he also tossed the coin and it came up B.
is a pretty strange assertion, but it does remove the probability
aspect of quantum theory, because all possible outcomes for a
measurement or experiment do in fact occur. They just occur in other
Critics of Star Trek
like to point out that quantum-mechanical effects can almost never
be observed in the world of "macroscopic," or human-scale, objects,
and therefore Worf's universe-hopping odyssey could never happen. But
this criticism misses the point. In a wonderful book written in the
1940s, Mister Tompkins in
Wonderland, pioneering nuclear physicist George Gamow
describes the strange adventures of a hapless character named
C.G.H. Tompkins. Tompkins finds himself in all manner of strange "alternate
universes," where fundamental constants of nature, like Planck's
constant, have values substantially different from their values in our
universe. The point of these stories was to introduce the reader to
basic ideas in quantum physics. Gamow knew that, taken literally, the
settings of the stories were impossible; if Planck's constant really
were a very large number, the universe as we know it simply wouldn't
exist. But by granting himself a little dramatic license, Gamow was
able to give his readers, in a charming and entertaining way, some
sense of the meaning of these new and exciting ideas in physics. "Parallels"
and several other Star Trek
stories were written in much the same spirit.
Alternate Universes ("Mirror, Mirror"; TOS)
Science Log, Stardate 3848.6. Science Officer Spock recording
A landing party beaming up from the surface of the Halkan homeworld
during an intense ion storm was transported into a parallel universe
remarkably similar to our own universe in terms of individuals and
technology, but ethically ruthless. The landing-party counterparts
from the alternate universe simultaneously appeared in our
Fortunately, Chief Engineer Scott, a member of the landing party, was
able to re-create the parameters of the transporter accident using
power from the alternate
Enterprise's warp engines. The
landing party returned safely to the ship, as their counterparts
beamed back to theirs
of the problems with the many-worlds interpretation of quantum
mechanics is, how could this idea ever be tested? No one has yet
devised an experiment that could prove or disprove the validity of the
many-worlds concept. Many physicists (myself included) question
whether a theory is meaningful if it can't be tested. The idea that
parallel universes are constantly spinning off from our universe at
every quantum turn is interesting, but until we can find a way to "access"
those other universes, or convincingly show that they don't exist, the
many-worlds idea will remain little more than interesting speculation.
Most scientists today have come to accept the statistical aspects of
quantum theory, despite Einstein's lament about God not playing dice.
Chaos theory, a
theory that examines the behavior of complex phenomena such as
whirlpools in rivers, suggests that the apparent randomness one often
encounters in nature may in fact belie an underlying order. And as the
mathematician Ian Stewart notes in his book,
Does God Play Dice?,
if God did play dice, he'd win.
The Physics of Star Trek
Lawrence M. Krauss
The Invisible Universe
- The Menagerie of Possibilities
QUANTUM MEASUREMENTS: There was a wonderful episode in the final
The Next Generation,
called "Parallels," in which Worf begins to jump between different "quantum
realities." The episode touches, albeit incorrectly, on one of the
most fascinating aspects of quantum mechanics-quantum measurement
Since we live on a scale at which quantum mechanical phenomena are not
directly observed, our entire intuitive physical picture of the
universe is classical in character. When we discuss quantum mechanics,
we generally use a classical language, so as to try and explain the
quantum mechanical world in terms we understand. This approach, which
is usually referred to as "the interpretation of quantum mechanics"
and so fascinates some philosophers of science, is benighted; what we
really should be discussing is "the interpretation of classical
mechanics" that is, how can the classical word we see-which is only an
approximation of the underlying reality, which in turn is quantum
mechanical in nature-be understood in terms of the proper quantum
If we insist on interpreting quantum mechanical phenomena in terms of
classical concepts, we will inevitably encounter phenomena that seem
paradoxical, or impossible. This is as it should be. Classical
mechanics cannot account properly for quantum mechanical phenomena,
and so there is no reason that classical descriptions should make
Having issued this caveat, I will describe the relevant issues in
classical mechanics terms, because these are the only tools of
language I have. While I have the proper mathematical terms to
describe quantum mechanics, like all other physicists I have recourse
only to a classical mental picture, because all my direct experience
As I alluded to in chapter 5, one of the most remarkable features of
quantum mechanics is that objects observed to have some property
cannot be said to have had that property the instant before the
observation. The observation process can change the character of the
physical system under consideration. The quantum mechanical
wavefunction of a system describes completely the configuration of
this system at any one time, and this wavefunction evolves according
to deterministic laws of physics. However, what makes things seem so
screwy is that this wavefunction can encompass two or more mutually
exclusive configurations at the same time.
For example, if a particle is spinning clockwise, we say that its spin
is "up." If it is spinning counterclockwise, we say that its spin is "down."
Now, the quantum mechanical wavefunction of this particle can
incorporate a sum with equal probabilities: spin up and spin down. If
you measure the direction of the spin, you will measure
spin down. Once you have made the measurement, the wavefunction
the particle will from then on include only the component you
measured the particle to have; if you measured spin up, you will go
on measuring this same value for this particle.
picture presents problems. How, you may ask, can the particle have had
both spin up and spin down before the measurement? The correct answer
is that it had neither. The configuration of its spin was
indeterminate before the measurement.
fact that the quantum mechanical wavefunction that describes objects
does not correspond to unique values for observables is especially
disturbing when one begins to think of living objects. There is a
famous paradox called "Schrödinger's cat." (Erwin Schrödinger was one
of the young Turks in their twenties who, early in this century,
helped uncover the laws of quantum mechanics. The equation describing
the time evolution of the quantum mechanical wavefunction is known as
Schrödinger's equation.) Imagine a box, inside of which is a cat.
Inside the box, aimed at the cat, is a gun, which is hooked up to a
radioactive source. The radioactive source has a certain quantum
mechanical probability of decaying at any given time. When the source
decays, the gun will fire and kill the cat. Is the wavefunction
describing the cat, before I open the box, a linear superposition of a
live cat and a dead cat? This seems absurd.
Similarly, our consciousness is always unique, never indeterminate. Is
the act of consciousness a measurement? If so, then it could be said
that at any instant there is a nonzero quantum mechanical probability
for a number of different outcomes to occur, and our act of
consciousness determines which outcome we experience. Reality then
has an infinite number of branches. At every instant our consciousness
determines which branch we inhabit, but an infinite number of other
possibilities exist a priori.
"many worlds" interpretation of quantum mechanics-which says that in
some other branch of the quantum mechanical wavefunction Stephen
Hawking is writing this book and I am writing the foreword-is
apparently the basis for poor Worf's misery. Indeed, Data says as much
during the episode. When Worf's ship traverses a "quantum fissure in
spacetime," while simultaneously emitting a "subspace pulse," the
barriers between quantum realities "break down," and Worf begins to
jump from one branch of the wavefunction to another at random times,
experiencing numerous alternative quantum realities. This can never
happen, of course, because once a measurement has been made, the
system, including the measuring apparatus (Worf, in this case), has
changed. Once Worf has an experience, there is no going back ... or
perhaps I should say sideways. The experience itself is enough to fix
reality. The very nature of quantum mechanics demands this.
is one other feature of quantum mechanics touched upon in the same
episode. The Enterprise
crew are able to verify that Worf is from another "quantum reality"
at one point by arguing that his "quantum signature at the atomic
level" differs from anything in their world. According to Data, this
signature is unique and cannot change due to any physical process.
This is technobabble, of course; however, it does relate to something
interesting about quantum mechanics. The entire set of all possible
states of a system is called a Hilbert space, after David Hilbert, the
famous German mathematician who, among other things, came very close
to developing general relativity before Einstein. It sometimes happens
that the Hilbert space breaks up into separate sectors, called "superselection
sectors." In this case, no local physical process can move a system
from one sector to another. Each sector is labeled by some quantity-for
instance, the total electric charge of the system. If one wished to be
poetic, one could say that this quantity provided a unique "quantum
signature" for this sector, since all local quantum operations
preserve the same sector, and the behavior of the operations and the
observables they are associated with is determined by this quantity.
However, the different branches of the quantum mechanical
wavefunction of a system must be in a single superselection sector,
because any one of them is physically accessible in principle. So,
unfortunately for Worf, even if he did violate the basic tenets of
quantum mechanics by jumping from one branch to another, no external
observable would be likely to exist to validate his story.
whole point of the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics (or
any other interpretation of quantum mechanics, for that matter) is
that you can never experience more than one world at a time. And
thankfully there are other laws of physics that would prevent the
appearance of millions of
different realities, as happens at the end of the episode. Simple
conservation of energy-a purely classical concept-is enough to forbid
Beyond Star Trek
Lawrence M. Krauss
The Final Frontier?
There is a common theme woven into much of our
pop culture and mythology. It is this: that the world of our
experience is a carefully concealed fiction, contrived to make us
believe that things are what they're not. Underneath a mundane
exterior, the protagonists of this world change their identity at will.
They slip through walls, disappear and reappear again, affect events
at vast distances instantaneously, split into many copies of
themselves and recombine. The world of our perceptions is an elaborate
show, put on for our benefit.
The X-Files? Men in Black?
The Republican and Democratic Parties? No. I am referring to the
Quantum Universe. This is the
final frontier, which must be explored if we are to one day comprehend
the beginning and the end of time and the objective reality of the
universe of our experience. The wildest dreams of science fiction
writers aren't a patch on the peculiarity of the Quantum Universe.
Albert Einstein disliked the quantum theory he helped invent because
of its "spooky action at a distance." As I noted in chapter
he had similar misgivings about ESP. Needless to say, this connection
has not been lost on various ESP proponents, so that quantum mechanics
has been invoked in this context many times. The important issue here
is one that sounds like it might be more appropriate for prime-time
television than for physics. It is called entanglement.
Whenever the wavefunction of a system of particles is made up of a
coherent sum of different states, then within each state the
configuration of one particle is correlated to another's (if one
particle is spin up, the other is spin down, for example), and the
particles are not independent: measurements of one particle will then
determine what the properties of the other particle must be. This
circumstance leads to what looks like a method of "spooky"
communication, even across large macroscopic distances-a communication
that thus appears to move faster than the speed of light.
An example of such apparently untenable quantum behavior was proposed
as a mischievous thought experiment in 1935 by Einstein and two of his
Princeton colleagues, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen. The best way to
illustrate it is by imagining the creation of a two-particle system
whose total spin is zero, so that the spins of the particles will
point in opposite directions when they are measured. The wavefunction
describing this system will contain a state in which particle A has
spin up and particle B has spin down, and also a state in which the
opposite obtains, with equal coefficients, so that the probability of
measuring either case is the same. This wavefunction will persist as
the particles move apart, as long as they are not disturbed.
What does this imply for a measurement of the system? Let's say that I
measure particle A, which has a 50-50 chance of being spin up in
advance of my measurement. When I do, I find that it is in the spin-up
state. Since the combined spin of the two particles has to be zero,
that must mean that when the spin of particle B is measured, it will
be spin down. If I had measured particle B before I measured particle
A, there would have been only a 50-50 chance that particle B was in a
spin-down state, so by measuring particle A first, I have changed the
probability for particle B's spin-from a 50-50 chance that it will be
down, to a 100 percent probability that it will be down. Now for the
kicker. What if particle B, which has been moving away from particle A
all the while, is passing by Alpha Centauri, 4 light-years away, when
I measure particle A? By choosing to measure particle A here, I can
instantaneously influence what an observer near Alpha Centauri must
A recent experiment done in Geneva tested this idea by measuring two
"entangled" photons after they had separated by 10 kilometers. Sure
enough, they remained correlated, with a measurement of one particle
instantaneously influencing the configuration of the other.
How can this be? Doesn't it violate the rules of causality, about
which I made such a big deal earlier in this book? Well, no. Since I
do not have control over which spin configuration particle A will have
until I measure it, there is no way I can use the spin to send any
message which would influence a person measuring particle B at Alpha
Still, if you feel there is something bothersome in all this, join the
crowd. Our classical intuition suggests that it should be impossible
for the two particles to communicate faster than light, even if we
can't use these particles to send superluminal messages. However,
from a purely quantum-mechanical perspective, the two particles were
never really in individual states. We like to think of them as
separate particles, but that's just our quaint classicism coming to
the fore. They are not separate entities; they are part of a quantum
whole. Moreover, until I made my initial measurement, neither
particle had either spin up or spin down; they were merely part of a
combination that had total spin zero. My measurement of particle A is
said to have "collapsed" the system's wavefunction, so that only one
of the two initial combinations remains after the measurement. Up to
and including this measurement, particle A and particle B and their
mutually exclusive spins are entangled-that is, their joint
configuration is described by a single wavefunction.
Now, if the universe is, at a fundamental level, quantum mechanical,
are we not all part of some cosmic wavefunction? Every time I blink an
eye, do I influence the state of everything else? This is a logical
extrapolation from the phenomenon just discussed, and if it is true,
then I may be a fool for making fun of astrologers.
Well, I may be a fool, but not for this reason. In fact, we know that
the nonsense happening at a microscopic scale cannot effectively be
the case at macroscopic scales-we know this just by looking around us.
Each of the two particles in the system described above can be thought
of, before measurement, as having
spin up and spin down, whereas the world of our experience is nothing
like this. My computer screen keeps sitting in one place staring me in
the face, until sometimes I would just like to throw it out the window.
It never, however, in all the years I have been writing, has appeared
simultaneously in two places, at least while I was awake.
The classical world is classical. And that's what makes quantum
mechanics so weird. How do we pass from the quantum world of
elementary particles to the classical world of people? How, in fact,
do we make measurements? When I expose a Geiger counter to a
radioactive particle, the particle may exist in a sum (or, in the
jargon of the field, a superposition) of different quantum states
before the measurement, but my measuring apparatus never seems to. It
either clicks, or it doesn't click. It never does both at the same
The prototypical example of the problem of measurement in quantum
mechanics is somewhat hackneyed, but enlightening nevertheless. It is
almost as old as quantum mechanics itself. The classical paradoxes of
the theory were not lost on its creators. They refused to let paradox
stall them, because the theory kept providing new predictions that
explained the results of otherwise inexplicable experiments. In 1935,
one of the quantum theory's inventors, the Austrian physicist Erwin
Schrödinger, composed what he described as a "burlesque," involving
the untimely demise of a cat, which illustrates how ridiculous the
quantum universe is if we entangle macroscopic objects with
microscopic ones. Schrödinger's cat is in a closed steel box
containing a vial of prussic acid mounted underneath a hammer, and
also containing a tube in which is a tiny amount of a radioactive
substance-enough so that within an hour's time there is a 50-50 chance
that one atom of this substance will decay, thus freeing an electron,
which will produce a response in a detector, which will relay a signal
to the hammer, which will descend and crush the vial, releasing the
poison and killing the cat. If the wavefunction of each radioactive
atom is allowed to include a coherent sum of decay and no-decay states
before we "measure" the system by opening the box an hour later, and
if the health of the cat is clearly correlated to these states, must
we not consider the cat to be in a superposition of alive and dead
Of course not. Except perhaps on
no one has ever seen a superposition. Cats are either alive or dead,
never both. There is a fundamental difference between a cat and an
atomic size object. But what is it?
One answer has been the fodder for science fiction, because it
suggests that our universe is infinitely (literally!) more complex
than we perceive it to be. What better inspiration for fiction could
one have? This answer, which goes under the name of the "many worlds"
interpretation of quantum mechanics, suggests that the fundamental
difference between a cat and a particle is that we can see the cat.
Treating ourselves and our consciousness as quantum-mechanical objects,
we can imagine that we, too, are entangled with the cat and the poison
apparatus and the box. Before we observe (or "measure") the state of
the cat, there are two coupled configurations that make up the
wavefunction describing the apparatus, the cat, and us-no decay, live
cat, a nice surprise for us when we open the box; or particle decay,
dead cat, a sad sight for us when we open the box. When we observe the
cat, we are collapsing the wavefunction to one of these two
possibilities. Each time our consciousness acts, we follow one track
out of what may be an infinite number of possible "branches" of the
quantum wavefunction of the universe. We perceive a single universe,
but that's because we are condemned to live in the universe of our
perception. Our quantum partner lives in the universe of the
alternative perception, where, if our cat lives, the alternative cat
dies-and vice versa. A physicist friend of mine likes to say not
altogether in jest that he finds solace in this view, because whenever
he makes a mistake or misses a great discovery, there's some branch of
the wavefunction in which his quantum partner hasn't.
If this conviction isn't sufficient solace, you might want, every now
and then, to jump into one of these parallel universes, where things
might be going better for you. This, of course, is the situation Worf
encounters in the Next Generation episode "Parallels," in
which he finds himself alternately married to Deanna and single. As
far as I can tell, it is also the context of a television series
called Sliders, in which an intrepid group of adventurers gets
to jump around from universe to universe; in these episodes, the
characters are the same, but certain essential details are unnervingly
different from week to week.
It is also, amusingly enough, a solution proposed by at least one
professional physicist (and a lot of amateur ones) to the grandmother
paradox, that plague of backward time travel. If you go back in time,
but into a parallel quantum universe, then there is no problem with
killing your grandmother, since your grandmother remains alive in the
universe in which you originated and to which you will presumably
return. (In this case, one might be tempted to ask, What is the point
of bothering to go back in time to kill your grandmother, since there
will always be some universe in which she is hit by a truck?)
The idea of many parallel universes is interesting, but the idea of
jumping around between them probably doesn't hold up. The central
tenet of quantum mechanics is that once the wavefunction has collapsed
and one choice out of several has been made, there is no going back.
Even in the "many worlds" picture, once you perceive reality you are
stuck with that reality. This idea is directly related to a powerful
constraint in physics called the Conservation of Probability, a
principle that states something very simple: The sum of the
probabilities for all different possible outcomes of some measurement
must be 1 -that is, something must happen. Moreover, only a single
result can be obtained for any measurement. Generally, any model that
allows you to jump between branches of the wavefunction will violate
One of the reasons I don't pursue notions of parallel universes and
possible travel between them is that I think they're ill conceived,
in the sense that Sidney Coleman suggested: They seem to be trying to
explain quantum mechanics in classical terms, by making it consistent
with our perceptions-rather than vice versa. What seems to me to be a
more reasonable approach, in which an attempt is made to understand
the classical world as an approximation of the underlying quantum
world, purely in the context of the quantum theory itself, has taken
some time to develop.
Some of the important insights have been arrived at only recently, 60
years or so after Schrödinger posed his paradox. Moreover, only the
general framework of this picture has been worked out; it goes by the
name of "decoherence" (not to be confused with what the reader may be
feeling at this point). The basic idea is simple: The macroscopic
world doesn't behave like the quantum universe; therefore, classical
objects-the objects at macroscopic scales-don't involve superpositions
of mutually exclusive possibilities.
How can this be, if macroscopic objects are made up of quantum objects?
Well, it's a matter of large numbers and also of the constant
interactions between all the constituents of these macroscopic objects.
Let's reconsider the simple two-particle system with total spin equal
to zero. The wavefunction is made up of two mutually exclusive
possibilities: A up,
B down plus A down, B up.
But this entanglement persists only as long as nothing else interacts
with the system. If particle B collides with particle C, in a process
in which the spin of particles B and C can be exchanged (for example),
then the correlation of particle A with particle B is reduced. If B
has a million such collisions, with a million other particles, the
original correlation with A will quickly be washed out. The system,
and hence the wavefunction describing the system, will then evolve as
if A and B are now independent. In modern parlance, A and B will
decohere. One can envision a coherent superposition of A and B
reappearing momentarily because of a later interaction, but if there
are lots of particles around, and lots of interactions, this
possibility becomes increasingly remote.
While the details of the operations of decoherence on macroscopic
aggregations of many particles have not yet been fully worked out, the
idea of decoherence seems eminently sensible. Not as much fun, perhaps,
as having many parallel universes (with the number of independent
universes increasing each time someone has a perception!), but
infinitely simpler. And decoherence suggests that quantum mechanics
solves its own problems that is, the classical limit is just the
limit at which there are no coherent superpositions of mutually
exclusive states for systems composed of large numbers of particles.
The individual quantum states of the many individual particles making
up the classical macroscopic system quickly decohere, and the
wavefunction of the system evolves into a sum of many different states,
but the states that describe mutually exclusive macroscopic
configurations (for example, live plus dead cat) have random plus and
minus signs and end up canceling out the sum. Moreover, decoherence
resolves the question that began this discourse: Am I correlated in
some quantum superposition with the cosmos-so that when the Moon is in
the seventh house and Jupiter aligns with Mars, Peace will guide the
planets and Love will rule the stars? No, I'm not. Decoherence assures
that there are likely to be no coherent macroscopic superpositions of
my state and Jupiter's in the wavefunction of the universe.
HyperSpace by Michio
Black Holes: Tunnels Through Space and Time
BLACK holes have recently seized the public's imagination. Books and
documentaries have been devoted to exploring this strange prediction
of Einstein's equations, the final stage in the death of a collapsed
star. Ironically, the public remains largely unaware of perhaps the
most peculiar feature of black holes, that they may be
gateways to an alternative universe.
Furthermore, there is also intense speculation in the scientific
community that a black hole may open up a tunnel in time.
The density of a black hole is so large that light, like a rocket
launched from the earth, will be forced to orbit around it. Since no
light can escape from the enormous gravitational field, the collapsed
star becomes black in color. In fact, that is the usual definition of
a black hole, a collapsed star from which no light can escape.
GATEWAYS TO ANOTHER UNIVERSE?
relativistic description of the black hole comes from the work of Karl
Schwarzschild. In 1916, barely a few months after Einstein wrote down
his celebrated equations, Schwarzschild was able to solve Einstein's
equations exactly and calculate the gravitational field of a massive,
Schwarzschild's solution has several interesting features. First, a "point
of no return" surrounds the black hole. Any object that comes closer
than this radius will inevitably be sucked into the black hole, with
no possibility of escape. Inexorably, any person unfortunate enough to
come within the Schwarzschild radius would be captured by the black
hole and crushed to death. Today, this distance from the black hole is
called the Schwarzschild
radius, or the horizon
(the farthest visible point).
Second, anyone who fell within the Schwarzschild radius would be aware
of a "mirror universe" on the "other side" of space-time (Figure
10.2). Einstein was not worried about the existence of this bizarre
mirror universe because communication with it was impossible. Any
space probe sent into the center of a black hole would encounter
infinite curvature; that is, the gravitational field would be infinite,
and any material object would be crushed. The electrons would be
ripped off atoms, and even the protons and neutrons within the nuclei
themselves would be torn apart. Also, to penetrate through to the
alternative universe, the probe would have to go faster than the speed
of light, which is not possible. Thus although this mirror universe is
mathematically necessary to make sense of the Schwarzschild solution,
it could never be observed physically.
Consequently, the celebrated
Einstein-Rosen bridge connecting these two universes (named
after Einstein and his collaborator, Nathan Rosen) was considered a
mathematical quirk. The bridge was necessary to have a mathematically
consistent theory of the black hole, but it was impossible to reach
the mirror universe by traveling through the Einstein-Rosen bridge.
Einstein-Rosen bridges were soon found in other solutions of the
gravitational equations, such as the Reissner-Nordstrom solution
describing an electrically charged black hole. However, the Einstein-Rosen
bridge remained a curious but forgotten footnote in the lore of
Things began to change with the work of New Zealand mathematician Roy
Kerr, who in 1963 found another exact solution to Einstein's equations.
Kerr assumed that any collapsing star would be rotating. Like a
spinning skater who speeds up when bringing in his or her hands, a
rotating star would necessarily accelerate as it began to collapse.
Thus the stationary Schwarzschild solution for a black hole was not
the most physically relevant solution of Einstein's equations.
Kerr found, however, that a massive rotating star does not collapse
into a point. Instead, the spinning star flattens until it eventually
is compressed into a ring, which has interesting properties. If a
probe were shot into the black hole from the side, it would hit the
ring and be totally demolished. The curvature of space-time is still
infinite when approaching the ring from the side. There is still a
"ring of death," so to speak, surrounding the center. However, if a
space probe were shot into the ring from the top or bottom, it would
experience a large but finite curvature; that is, the gravitational
force would not be infinite.
This rather surprising conclusion from Kerr's solution means that any
space probe shot through a spinning black hole along its axis of
rotation might, in principle, survive the enormous but finite
gravitational fields at the center, and go right on through to the
mirror universe without being destroyed by infinite curvature. The
Einstein-Rosen bridge acts like a tunnel connecting two regions of
space-time; it is a wormhole. Thus the Kerr black hole is a gateway to
Now imagine that your rocket has entered the Einstein-Rosen bridge. As
your rocket approaches the spinning black hole, it sees a ring-shaped
spinning star. At first, it appears that the rocket is headed for a
disastrous crash landing as it descends toward the black hole from the
north pole. However, as we get closer to the ring, light from the
mirror universe reaches our sensors. Since all electromagnetic
radiation, including radar, orbits the black hole, our radar screens
are detecting signals that have been circulating around the black hole
a number of times. This effect resembles a hall of mirrors, in which
we are fooled by the multiple images that surround us. Light goes
ricocheting across numerous mirrors, creating the illusion that there
are numerous copies of ourselves in the hall.
The same effect occurs as we pass through the Kerr black hole. Because
the same light beam orbits the black hole numerous times, our rocket's
radar detects images that have gone spinning around the black hole,
creating the illusion of objects that aren't really there.
Warp Factor 5
Does this mean that black holes can be used for travel throughout the
galaxy, as in
and other science-fiction movies?
As we saw earlier, the curvature in a certain space is determined by
the amount of matter-energy contained in that space (Mach's principle).
Einstein's famous equation gives us the precise degree of spacetime
bending caused by the presence of matter-energy.
When Captain Kirk takes us soaring through hyperspace at "warp factor
5," the "dilithium crystals" that power the
must perform miraculous feats of warping space and time. This means
that the dilithium crystals have the magical power of bending the
space-time continuum into pretzels; that is, they are tremendous
storehouses of matter and energy.
travels from the earth to the nearest star, it does not physically
move to Alpha Centauri-rather, Alpha Centauri comes to the
Imagine sitting on a rug and lassoing a table several feet away. If we
are strong enough and the floor is slick enough, we can pull the lasso
until the carpet begins to fold underneath us. If we pull hard enough,
the table comes to us, and the "distance" between the table and us
disappears into a mass of crumpled carpeting. Then we simply hop
across this "carpet warp." In other words, we have hardly moved; the
space between us and the table has contracted, and we just step across
this contracted distance. Similarly, the
does not really cross the entire space to Alpha Centauri; it simply
moves across the crumpled
space-time-through a wormhole.
To better understand what happens when one falls down the
Einstein-Rosen bridge, let us now discuss the topology of wormholes.
To visualize these multiply connected spaces, imagine that we are
strolling down New York's Fifth Avenue one bright afternoon, minding
our own business, when a strange floating window opens up in front of
us, much like Alice's looking glass. (Never mind for the moment that
the energy necessary to open this window might be enough to shatter
the earth. This is a purely hypothetical example.)
We step up to the hovering window to take a closer look, and are
horrified to find ourselves staring at the head of a nasty-looking
Tyrannosaurus rex. We are about to run for our lives, when we notice
that the tyrannosaur has no body. He can't hurt us because his entire
body is clearly on the other side of the window. When we look below
the window to find the dinosaur's body, we can see all the way down
the street, as though the dinosaur and the window weren't there at
all. Puzzled, we slowly circle the window and are relieved to find
that the tyrannosaur is nowhere to be found. However, when we peer
into the window from the back side, we see the head of a brontosaur
staring us in the face (Figure 10.3)!
Figure 10.3. In this purely hypothetical example, a "window" or
wormhole has opened up in our universe. If we look into the window
from one direction, we see one dinosaur. If we look into the other
side of the window, we see another dinosaur. As seen from the other
universe, a window has opened up between the two dinosaurs. Inside
the window, the dinosaurs see a strange small animal (us).
Frightened, we walk around the window once more, staring at the window
sideways. Much to our surprise, all traces of the window, the
tyrannosaur, and the brontosaur are gone. We now take a few more turns
around the floating window. From one direction, we see the head of the
tyrannosaur. From the other direction, we see the head of the
brontosaur. And when we look from the side, we find that both the
mirror and the dinosaurs have disappeared.
In some faraway universe, the tyrannosaur and the brontosaur have
squared off in a life-and-death confrontation. As they face each
other, a floating window suddenly appears between them. When the
tyrannosaur peers into the floating mirror, he is startled to see the
head of a puny, skinny-looking mammal, with frizzy hair and a tiny
face: a human. The head is clearly visible, but it has no body.
However, when the brontosaur stares into the same window from the
other direction, he sees Fifth Avenue, with its shops and traffic.
Then the tyrannosaur finds that this human creature in the window has
disappeared, only to appear on the side of the window facing the
Now let us say that suddenly the wind blows our hat into the window.
We see the hat sailing into the sky of the other universe, but it is
nowhere to be seen along Fifth Avenue. We take one long gulp, and
then, in desperation, we stick our hand into the window to retrieve
the hat. As seen by the tyrannosaur, a hat blows out the window,
appearing from nowhere. Then he sees a disembodied hand reaching out
the window, desperately groping for the hat.
The wind now changes direction, and the hat is carried in the other
direction. We stick our other hand into the window, but from the other
side. We are now in an awkward position. Both our hands are sticking
into the window, but from different sides. But we can't see our
fingers. Instead, it appears to us that both hands have disappeared.
How does this appear to the dinosaurs? They see two wiggling, tiny
hands dangling from the window, from either side. But there is no body
Figure 10.4. If we insert our hands into the window from two different
directions, then it appears as though our hands have disappeared. We
have a body, but no hands. In the alternative universe, two hands have
emerged from either side of the window but they are not attached to a
This example illustrates some of the delicious distortions of space
and time that one can invent with multiply connected spaces.
Closing the Wormhole
It seems remarkable that such a simple idea-that higher dimensions can
unify space with time, and that a "force" can be explained by the
warping of that space-time-would lead to such a rich diversity of
physical consequences. However, with the wormhole and multiply
connected spaces, we are probing the very limits of Einstein's theory
of general relativity. In fact, the amount of matter-energy necessary
to create a wormhole or dimensional gateway is so large that we expect
quantum effects to dominate. Quantum corrections, in turn, may
actually close the opening of the wormhole, making travel through the
Since neither quantum theory nor relativity is powerful enough to
settle this question, we will have to wait until the ten-dimensional
theory is completed to decide whether these wormholes are physically
relevant or just another crazy idea. However, before we discuss the
question of quantum corrections and the ten-dimensional theory, let us
now pause and consider perhaps the most bizarre consequence of
wormholes. Just as physicists can show that wormholes allow for
multiply connected spaces, we can also show that they allow for time
travel as well.
Let us now consider perhaps the most fascinating, and speculative,
consequence of multiply connected universes: building a time machine.
what I personally think of Parallel Universes
you are, you have now a complete report about Parallel Universes. As I
said before, I encourage you to buy the books from which the
information came from.
far parallel universes can exist or not depending on your
interpretation of the Quantum Universe. Any day now we might prove
that they don’t exist or that they do (until of course another
revolution in Physics occurs and challenges our interpretation of all
do I think about Parallel Universes? All the theories are fascinating
and certainly make great sci-fi. For that alone I want to believe in
the Many-Worlds interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. It is certainly
more exciting than the probabilities of an event (wavefunction
universe) collapsing whenever my decision is made and all other
possible outcomes of that event will never exist.
résumé, the main theory to explain Parallel Universes is based on the
observations in Quantum Mechanics that:
particle can be at many places at the same time and that the same
particle can go through doors A and B when going across a box when it
should only go through one door.
well, parallel universes are helped by the Heisenberg’s uncertainty
principle that states that it is impossible to specify simultaneously
the position and momentum of a particle, such as an electron, with
precision. And to observe its speed and motion or its position
destroys what we observe. Until it is observed, that particle exists
in all its possible states, and perhaps there are parallel universes
in which all these possible states actually exist. (The Schrödinger’s
cat in its box is either alive, dead, or in between. In this universe
you would open the box and find the cat dead, but in parallel
universes you would open the box and the cat would be alive or in
There is also this fact that particles flicker in and out of existence
in the vacuum of space. Could those particles be exchanged via micro-wormholes
between parallel universes?
if you are not familiar with these concepts, I have to let you know
that what follows are my pet theories and that probably no one in the
scientific world would confirm any of this. I believe that these
particles, like I explain at this URL below, are going faster than the
speed of light:
would explain why a particle can go through doors A and B to go across
a box, in fact that particle had the time to go everywhere in that box
before leaving it. We are just not aware of it. When a particle
flicker in or out of existence, it is only going faster than the speed
of light (we cannot see it) or slower (we can see it). It is when that
particle reaches the threshold of the speed of light that it
disappears, but it is still there. That accounts for the missing mass
in the universe that is not missing, it is just invisible from our
are unable to observe the fact that this particle is going faster than
the speed of light because the measuring instruments we use are using
light which travels (from our perspective) at a constant speed of C
(300,000 km per second), though that particle can go faster. This
speed of light, still according to myself, is also relative and
changes according to our own speed in space and the gravity
are we calculating that this particle is not going faster than the
speed of light? Because we are using Einstein’s equations to calculate
it and we need to take into account that the speed of light is
relative. Therefore C in all of these equations needs to reflect its
relative speed. For more information about the modifications of
Einstein’s equations, please read my correspondence with William
Taggart at this URL:
when comes the time to measure where that particle is, we register as
many particles as the times that this particle crosses the speed of
light. If that particle goes at five times the speed of light, then we
will measure 5 particles for one particular moment with our limited
instruments. So, it is not like saying that this particle exists at
many places at the same time, or that as a consequence there can be
Many-Worlds in this universe. One day we might be able to measure the
real speed of that particle and its exact positions at any given time,
or exact position at any given relative adjusted time.
Therefore it is hard from my point of view to keep the Many-Worlds
interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, but don’t worry, I cannot keep
the other way of interpreting it either. The universe does not exist
in all its possible states, a particle is only at one place at any
given time, it is going faster than the speed of light and us,
observing it using limited instruments that use light, see double,
triple, quadruple, etc.
said, I still believe that certain parallel worlds could exist, which
could explain the Déjà-vu phenomenon. Simply because I believe we are
living in a fluctuating reality. Our particles are going faster than
the speed of light and they are not going at a constant speed because
of the surrounding gravitational and magnetic fields. So we could in
fact be living in many different realities at the same time, and we
could be living as much in the past as in the future. This because
time, distance, speed, mass, etc., all this is relative to our speed
in space, to the speed of our particles and the changing gravity
exerted upon us. Whether this gravity comes from a celestial body or a
power line or from a crack in the crust of the Earth.
help you visualize this, take only one timeline that could be your
life. Now, time and space are relative, which means sometimes one
minute is like 60 seconds, and some other times one minute could be 1
second, sometimes perhaps 1 minute could even be 300 years, and I
would even venture to say that sometimes 1 minute could be -300 years.
Same thing for space, at this very moment you are here, the next
minute you could be on the Moon (of course the Earth would be at the
position of the Moon in space and the Moon would be somewhere else in
orbit), and sometimes you could even be outside of the solar system,
light years away from here. This means that your life is not as linear
as you might have thought and that your status in life is changing all
the time within the same timeline.
there are two ways to look at this. Either time is running slower and
faster but ultimately it does not change anything to your life apart
from taking longer or shorter from someone else point’s of view
outside of the solar system, or the whole reality is always in
movement and you live as much in the past as in the future. Which
means that actions you do in the future could affect the past because
you would know about something that might influence the way you will
act in the past. In a way the past, the present and the future are
always in movement, they are never fixed. Which means that, since time
is relative, you could be making the decision of becoming a teacher
now and in some years realize what a mistake that was, and when comes
the time to choose to be a teacher (now), you could feel that you have
already done that before, you have a premonition that it is the wrong
decision, and you decide instead to become a nuclear physicist. Now
you could always feel again that it was the wrong decision (after
helping destroy the whole planet) and decide at that point in the past
that your guts tell you to commit suicide instead. All three lives
exist at the same time even though it is the same life, you can be a
teacher, a nuclear physicist and dead. Time being relative, it can
bring you back to a time before you made those decisions and you can
change your decisions. If you have a good memory of the future, déjà-vu,
so-called signs that help you remember, premonitions, feelings, then
you can make your life better, a bit like switching to other parallel
universes even though the other realities don’t exist but could if you
change your decisions in the past. So now I am a writer, but there is
also this other reality where I am an engineer, and because time is
relative, I could find myself in the past at the point where I made my
decision to not study engineering, and decide instead to become an
engineer. At that point, me being a writer does not really exist
anymore, but could, and in a way, it does. This way of looking at the
universe could also explain how mediums know about the future and a
lot of other paranormal phenomena.
someone could invent a technology to influence the future by modifying
the past, that would be a time machine. We do not need time machines
to influence our life at the moment, by concentrating (perhaps
meditating) about our life might transmit a message to our own past in
which it would influence our actual future, changing it in order to
find ourselves in a different timeline or parallel universe. No need
for wormholes or inter-dimensional windows, our mind can do the trick.
It is always plausible that we will come up with a machine that could
speed up the process, make us more aware of those messages from the
future in order to help us make the right decisions and perhaps modify
the life of others to change history. Note that I am not convinced
that this is possible, it is merely a hypothesis.
know this is difficult to understand and I have more details on the
pages mentioned above. You would not find many physicists to confirm
this though. I also have to admit that a great number of great
physicists are convinced that parallel universes exist via the Many-Worlds
interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, and perhaps they are right.
Mathematically this appears to be true, but I sometimes wonder if our
interpretation of what we observe is right.
might want to do a search on “Parallel Universes” in the book section
of websites like amazon.com, There are new books out there with
Parallel Universes in the title that would certainly answer all your
Please let me know if you have questions about this. I would love to
help you understand any comments in this report.
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